COMPREHENSION AND SUMMARY
- Read the passage below carefully and answer the questions that follow
There are three kinds of education in Africa. There is the old traditional education; there are
the remains of the colonial schooling, which varied according to how the European power
saw African requirements; and there is the post-independence attempt to find an education
suitable for the needs of modern Africa.
The old education grew naturally out of the village and tribal ways of life, and there was
much to commend it. A child had to learn how to deal with the dangers of his surroundings
and how to treat his fellows. He knew about weather, love and the skills of a spear, axe and
hoe from old men. His mother taught him correct speech, behaviour and respect for his
elders. Throughout his childhood, it was impressed on him that he could not live alone – he
must ‘conform’, and accept the ways of the tribe. He lived in a world of kinship: his kin gave
him security in sickness and old age. Law and ownership of land, too, were based on kinship.
So the child learned the rites which kinship would demand throughout his life from birth to
maturity, marriage and death.
Much of this education was informal. The home was the child’s school, where he learned
traditional legends and proverbs. (For example, the reader might like to work out the
meaning of these two Baluyia proverbs from Kenya: ‘A person running alone thinks he is the
fastest runner’ and ‘a small bird cannot advise a bigger one). This social education had a great
emphasis on correct conduct and confidence. A traveller in Africa in 1930s wrote: ‘I have
seen three children between four years and six quite competently preparing a meal with no
supervision’. But severe tests of endurance were a more formal part of this education. Chagga
boys in the old days had to sleep in holes in the ground at night for nine months, often in the
cold mountain air. A boy was required to go on a lonely expedition into the forest to kill a
leopard with a bow and arrow. Bena girls aged nine to thirteen, were ducked repeated in
streams, or terrified by women pretending to fall dead at their feet, and by the appearance of
This traditional form of education had the advantage of preparing a child for life in the
community; it did not in general encourage him to be ambitious or independent, or teach him
to meet the needs of the modern world. So in the colonial years missions and ‘European’
schools taught the kinds of things children in Europe were taught. This produced small
westernised elite in some colonies, but it was severely criticised for having little to do with
African needs. Reading books had European birds and snow scenes in them; arithmetic
problems dealt with taps, and wall-paper rolls. Few of these things had anything to do with
many African children’s environment.
Colonial education too has been criticised because it was, to quote President Nyerere of
Tanzania, ‘motivated by a desire to inculcate the values of the colonial society andto train
individual for the service of the colonial states’. The state interest in education was based on
the need for local clerks and junior officials, and there was thus a heavy emphasis on
subservient attitudes and white-collar skills.
In the post-independence era, African needs are being rethought. Questions are being asked
such as, how many universities should a country have, whilst half of an age group gets no
schooling at all? Some highly trained electrical engineers are needed for the power stations;
but Africa also needs men skilled in the relatively simple skills of wooden bridge
construction, laying late rite roads and building single-story houses. Civil servants especially
need a good secondary education if they are to deal with matters ranging from money for a
new agricultural scheme to collecting information for government approval of a harbour
extension. For this, says one writer, ‘a developing continent must clearly learn to be
practical’. In Africa parents have become convinced that education is the key to a good job
and family prestige too. But it has its drawbacks. In many countries secondary and college
education means that children have to leave the rural areas for the towns and later as mean
they are not returning to work on the farms and produce the food. The opportunities and
leisure attractions of the towns are too tempting.
- From this passage we can tell that colonial education was to
- help Africans acquire their independence
- help Europeans swiftly rule the Africans
- meet the needs of modern African
- replace African tradition and culture
- Civilise the African children.
- The word ‘conform’ in the second paragraph means
- comply with rules or general custom
- discuss with other members of the society
- respect the elders of the society
- mix with the rest of members of the society
- disagree with the community values.
iii. ‘Elite’ in the fourth paragraph means
- a group of ‘selected people
- a group of colonialists
- a group of westernised Africans
- a group of rich people
- a disadvantaged group.9
- The traveler in East Africa was surprised (in paragraph three) because
- he could not expect such young children to prepare such a delicious meal
- he thought only European children could prepare a meal like that
- the children could prepare a meal without assistance from an older person
- the children were not competently supervised when preparing the meal
- the children were too few to prepare a meal.
- We can deduce from paragraphs four and five that colonial education was
- too difficult for the Africans
- irrelevant to the African situation
- showing European birds and snow that did not exist in Africa
- preparing Africans for highly paid jobs
- preparing Africans for leadership in missionsther free resources at: http://maktaba.tetea.org
- According to the writer, education in Africa today
- should train electrical engineers D. should be practical oriented
- does not require universities E. should base on secondary school level only
- should not prepare a western elite.
vii. The writer says that in traditional education “severe tests of endurance were a more
formal part of this education’. The aim of the tests was to train
- boys and girls not to fear the sight of monsters
- boys and girls to survive in the cold
- a Chagga boy not to fear a leopard
- Bena girls not to run away from the prêt endingly dead women falling at their feet
- boys and girls to tolerate in extremely difficult conditions.
viii. Nyerere criticised colonial education because
- it perpetuated the interests of the colonial society
- it prepared local clerks and junior officials
- it encouraged university level only
- it inculcated the values of the colonized society
- he just hated colonialists.
- In the seventh paragraph, the question ‘… how many universities should a country have,
when half of an age group gets no schooling at all?’ implies that the writer
- does not support university education
- supports university education for children who got no schooling at all
- encourages more emphasis be put on lower levels of education than the university
- discourages lower levels of education for children who got no schooling at all
- insists that civil servants should just receive good secondary education.
- From the last paragraph the writer observes that education in many African countries is
- preparing young people for rural life
- preparing young people for urban life
- attracting young people to areas which they are reluctant to leave
- trying to prepare young people for rural life, but the urban areas are too tempting
- preparing young people for rural life but they do not like farming.10
- Read and summarize the following passage in two sentences
How can we depend upon gift, loans and investments from foreign countries and foreign
companies without endangering our independence? The English people have a saying which
says “He who pays the piper calls the tune”
How can we depend upon foreign governments and companies for the major part of our
development without giving those governments and countries a great part our freedom and
expect them to do as we please? The truth is that we will end up in disappointment.
- Fill in the blanks by writing the correct form of the word from the brackets against the item
Tanzania (i)_________ (take) a significant step to (ii)________ (nation) her means of wealth
after Arusha declaration of 1967 and therefore (iii)______ (embrace) socialism. Tanzania
(iv)______(create) village communities through the (v)_________(village) policy. People
(vi)________ (settle) in such village communities to provide (vii)_________(collect) and
joint efforts needed to(viii)_____________ (maximum) production of wealth.
- Choose the correct word from the given list below to fill in the blanks in the following
sentences: beg, pursue, managed, ancestors, display, pangaea, mate, similar, pepper,
- a) __________is a type of friend one is forced to be with in life
- b) ___________ has the same meaning as the word portray
- c) ______________is the first super continent named by scientists
- d) _____________ are our forefathers and mothers
- e) ___________means achieved, controlled and or succeeded
- f) __________ is the same as the English word request
- g) ___________ is to undertake
- h) ____________ is close in meaning with the word resemble
- In each of these sentences one of the words is wrong. Identify and correct them by writing
the correct spelling for each word.
- a) The furniture’s are sold at cheaper price.
- b) The equipment is needed at workplace today
- c) We are water the garden now.
- d) I took a loaf of advice from Juma last week
- e) Girls has to liberate on their own from boys’ traps
- f) Ali meets me for a discussion last evening.
- g) Muchin formations about a town is gathered through narrations.
- h) Both house girls and house boys know sufferings.11
- Using the words below, complete the following expressions.
Purpose, vision, delegates, sex, gender, congregation, choir, legend, ballad, fans,
- a) A final target that drives your undertaking is known as a __________.
- b) A motive or reason for doing a job or business is named a __________.
- c) A group of people worshiping at church session is collectively called a__________.
- d) A story which may not be true is said to be a __________.
- e) Sent representatives with special mission and interests to negotiate on behalf of a
state are called the __________.
- f) A biological trait which distinguishes man from a woman is a __________.
- g) A poem prepared for dramatization on stage is classified as a __________
- h) People belonging to the same political parties or military grade call
- Rewrite the following sentences according to the instructions given after each:
- a) Halima is as tall as Asha. (Split the sentence to make two distinctive sentences)
- b) Juma likes Ugali. Ali likes Ugali too (Join the two sentences by using neither—nor)
- c) “ I will come Tomorrow” Musa promised (Report this statement)
- d) The Democratic Republic of Congo invites our country to state celebration
(Passivise the sentence)
- Rearrange the following five sentences into a logical sequence to make a meaningful
paragraph by writing the corresponding letter in the answer booklet provided. Use the
following format for your answers.
Sentence number 1 2 3 4 5
- They were shouting to the bus driver who caused a serious accident.
- On my way to the market, I met a crowd of people shouting.
- Finally, the bus driver was taken to the nearby police station.
- One day, I was asked to go to the market by my mother.
- Two people who were on the motor bicycle died on the spot.
- Match each expression in List A with the correct word from List B by writing its letter
beside the item number in the answer booklet(s) provided. Use the following format for your
LIST A LIST B
(iii)A place in boarding school where
students/pupils sleep at night.
(iv)A place where people buy and sell
A place where experiments are conducted
Part of an eye or type of factory
Is part of an eye or means learner
A factory or a macro organism12
Numbers i Ii iii iv v
- Answer all questions from alternatives given A, B, C and D.
- Write a story tilted A DAY SHE WILL NEVER FORGET ( At least 250 words)
- Imagine you are the new appointed Regional Commissioner of Kigoma region. In not
less than 200 words write a first speech you would deliver in an official welcoming
ceremony at aqua lodge beaches. Focus on your plans as a new president Magufuli’
- Write an invitation card to request your sisters’ friends to attend on your niece’s
birthday dinner party. Also write telephone messages from those who will call for
excuses. Use fictitious names.
- Write a letter to the Editor of Guardian Newspaper on the challenges of democracy in
Tanzania. Use fictitious name and address
RESPONSE TO READING
Answer ALL questions from this section.
NOVELS AND SHORT STORIES
A Wreath for Fr. Mayer – S.N. Ndunguru (1977), Mkuki na Nyota
Unanswered Cries – Osman Conteh, Macmillan
Passed Like a Shadow – RM Mapalala (2006),’ DUP
Spared – S.N. Ndunguru (2004), Mkuki na Nyota
Weep Not Child – Ngugi wa Thiong’o (1987); Heinemann
The Interview – P. Ngugi (2002), .Macmillan
Three Suitors: One. Husband – O.Mbia (1994),. Eyre Methuen
The Lion and the Jewel – W. Soyinka (1963),
This Time Tomorrow – Ngugi wa Thiong’o (1972), Heinemann
The Black Hermit – Ngugi wa Thiong’o (1968), Heinemann
Songs of Lawino and Ocol – 0.P’Bitek (1979), EAPH
Growing up with Poetry – D. Rubadiri (ed) (1989), Heinemann
Summons – R Mahala (1960), TPH
- How does this poem describe the position and roles of women in our societies? (Give eight points).
I plead guilty
That my woman is a tool
To fulfil my sexual desires,
That she’s the source of sexual pleasure.
Where I plant my deeds13
So as to get children
Which are mine.
And not hers,
Who have the right
To inherit my property,
And not her.
I plead guilty
That I have regarded my woman
As my property,
Because I paid the bride price
To her parents.
What did her parents think
When they demanded
The tank of beer,
That they were making wealth out of me
Because their girl will work for me
Just like a slave.
I plead guilty
That I have inherited the stupidity
Of my slavery age parents,
That I have prolonged inequality.
That I have continued oppression.
I am guilty
My nation plead guilty
That it has shut an eye
To the rights of women,
That it has kept women
In the kitchen,
In the church,
And at home
To look after children.
My nation pleads guilty
That it has given little room
To the she sex,
That the number of girls at school
Has always been smaller
Than that of boys.
My nation pleads guilty
That it has always given a narrow chance
For women to become
Leaders of the state
And public organizations,
That their percentage
Has always been small.
I agree that
If a woman is to be oppressed
By a man
Who is in turn exploited,
Who is in turn disregarded
By the bourgeoisie,
By the petty bourgeoisie,
Then she’s ruined:
She has nothing to live for!
I agree that
To deny them freedom
Means to refuse human equality,
Means to accept capitalism
Deep in our hearts
And also means refusing
The development of the majority
- Poets compose poems not just for pleasure and entertainment but for addressing human social,
political and economic issues. Using Song of Lawino and Ocol present eight points to verify the
- ‘Rural life in Africa is itself a separate world, a world with its own life styles and manner’.
Using two plays of your choice provide four pieces of evidence from each play to substantiate
the said analogy.
- ‘In human society misunderstanding is inevitable and this emanates from the roots of the
problem which are evident in many societies’. With reference to two novels discuss the eight
major roots of misunderstanding, four roots from each novel.