|Kidney (renal) failure – failure of the kidney to function adequately due to partial or entire destruction of nephrons
- Damage to the kidney due to accident or complications during surgery
- Low blood volume due to excessive bleeding
- Poor intake of fluids
- Medication, for example, diuretics (“water pills”) may cause excessive water loss
- Obstruction of renal artery, causing blocking of blood flow to the kidneys
- Kidney stones
- Chronic diseases that gradually cause the kidneys to stop functioning
- Dehydration from loss of body fluid (for example, vomiting, diarrhoea, sweating, fever)
- Prostate cancer may block the urethra and prevent the bladder from emptying
- Oedema (swelling of the legs, ankles, feet, face or hands due to excess fluids)
- High levels of urea in blood leading to vomiting, nausea, weight loss, blood in urine or difficulty in urinating
- Loss of appetite
|Bone damage, muscle paralysis, abnormal heart rhythm, loss of memory, pain in the back or side and if not treated earlier, can lead to death if it involves both kidneys
- Avoid potassium-rich foods like citrus fruits, bananas, instant coffee, peanuts and chocolate
- May require a kidney transplant.
- Medications e.g. phosphorus-lowering medications.
- Lack of vitamins
- Inadequate intake of water
- Certain types of drugs
- Decrease in urine volume and/or an excess of stone-forming substances in the urine.
- Dehydration from reduced fluid intake or strenuous exercise
- Obstruction to the flow of urine
- Infection in the urinary tract
- Extreme pain and difficulty in urination
- Pain in the low back and/or side, groin, or abdomen
- Blood in the urine due to damage of the inside walls of the kidney, ureter or urethra
- Nausea and vomiting
- Chills and fever
- May lead to kidney failure
- Toxicity due to urine staying in the body for a long time
- Severe back pain
- Surgery and medications are expensive
- Taking a balanced diet that is low in protein, nitrogen and sodium
- Drinking plenty of water
- Avoid beverages that contain caffeine like coffee.
- Surgical treatment to remove the stones
- May require kidney transplant
- Medications (painkillers)
|Urinary tract infections (UTIs)
- Bacterial infection in the urinary tract
- Frequent or intense urge to urinate even though little comes out when you do
- Pain during urination
- Pain or pressure in the back or lower abdomen
- Cloudy, dark, bloody, or strange-smelling urine
- Feeling tired or shaky
- Fever or chills (a sign the infection may have reached your kidneys)
- Medications are expensive.
- Pain and nuisance due to urge to urinate frequently.
- Drinking a lot of fluids
- Maintaining toilet hygiene
- Complete urination
- Cleanse genital area before sex
- Urinate after sex to flush away any bacteria that may have entered your urethra
- Keep genital area dry by wearing cotton underwear and loose-fitting clothes
|Liver cirrhosis: a condition in which liver cells degenerate and are replaced by scar tissue, causing the liver to shrink, harden, become fibrous and fail to function normally
- Alcohol and viral hepatitis B and C
- Attack by bacterial and viruses
- Parasites such as liver flukes and schistosoma
- Obstruction of the gall bladder
- Exposure to chemical poisons such as silica and asbestos
- Loss of weight
- Poor appetite
- Abdominal pain
- Blood stained vomit
- Severe cirrhosis is fatal
- Easy bruising, yellowing of the skin (jaundice),itching, and fatigue.
- Oedema, ascites (accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity), and liver cancer
- Avoiding excess consumption of alcohol
- Avoiding fatty foods
- Low salt intake
- Eating varied, easily digestible food
- Plenty of rest
- Medical treatment
- Liver transplant in case of severe cirrhosis
|Hepatitis:Inflammation of the liver
- It is a viral disease–virus is transmitted through body fluids such as saliva, blood and semen
- There are five main types of hepatitis: A, B, C, D, and E – plus types X and G
- Abdominal discomfort
- Dark brown urine and whitish faeces
- May lead to liver failure
- If not treated early may lead to death
- Hygienic processing of food
- Proper disposal of sewage
- Treatment of water
- Proper handing of blood
- Screening blood before transfusion
- Using sterilized needles and syringes
- Not yet very clear but a number of reasons such as smoking, radiation, parasitic infection, exposure to chemicals (carcinogens) may cause the disease.
- Blood in urine.
- Frequent urinary tract infections, painful urination and urge to urinate without actual flow.
- Weight or appetite loss.
- Abdominal or back pain, persistent raised temperature or anaemia.
- Expenses on medication.
- Pain – reduces the quality of life.
- Stop smoking.
- Avoid exposure to industrial chemicals.
- Eat healthy foods-choose low-fat, low-cholesterol diet that includes plenty of fruits and vegetables.
- Avoid dehydration by increasing your fluid intake, particularly water. Water dilutes cancer-causing chemicals.